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One of the best studied hormone-behavior interactions is the transient rise testosterone (T) associated with male-male aggression. However, recent research on songbirds has demonstrated numerous exceptions to this pattern.One species previously thought to elevate T in response to a simulated territorial intrusion is the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). Here, we show that under most circumstances male juncos do not elevate circulating T or CORT levels in response to social stimuli, despite being physiologically capable of elevating T as indicated by their response to GnRH. The lack of hormonal response was found regardless of the sex of the social stimulus (singing male vs. soliciting female), its sensory modality (song only, song + live lure, song + taxidermic mount), or the timecourse of sampling. Notably, males did elevate T levels when exposed to a simulated territorial intrusion in the days following simulated predation of their chicks. Whether the high T seen in these narrow circumstances represents stage-dependent social modulation of T or re-activation of male reproductive physiology in preparation for re-nesting (i.e. socially independent T modulation) remains to be determined. It is clear, however, that activation of the HPG axis is highly context-specific for male juncos. These results highlight important and unresolved issues regarding the socially mediated component of the challenge hypothesis and how it relates to the evolution of hormone-mediated traits. .

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Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people may be associated with the induction and growth stimulation of hormone-related malignancies. We report here five cases of breast cancer, three in female-to-male (FtoM) transsexual subjects and two in male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual subjects. In the general population the incidence of breast cancer increases with age and with duration of exposure to sex hormones. This pattern was not recognised in these five transsexual subjects. Tumours occurred at a relatively young age (respectively, 48, 41, 41, 52 and 46 years old) and mostly after a relatively short span of time of cross-sex hormone treatment (9, 9-10 but in one after 30 years). Occurrence of breast cancer was rare. As has been reported earlier, breast tumours may occur in residual mammary tissue after breast ablation in FtoM transsexual people. For adequate treatment and decisions on further cross-sex hormone treatment it is important to have information on the staging and histology of the breast tumour (type, grade and receptor status), with an upcoming role for the androgen receptor status, especially in FtoM transsexual subjects with breast cancer who receive testosterone administration. This information should be taken into account when considering further cross-sex hormone treatment. .

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To explore the medical and surgical clinical dilemmas in the management of trans (transgender) men, a growing population receiving more attention than in the past. .

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The influence of aging on the HPG axis is sex dependent. The pattern of age-related TT was different in Chinese Han men when compared with previous studies in Western populations. TT values increased in aging men, so it is not suitable to estimate the life quality of older Chinese men just based on TT. .

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The study included 16 untreated women with elevated testosterone levels and 15 matched healthy women who were then treated with oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol (30?g) and drospirenone (3mg). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, circulating levels of androgens, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen and homocysteine, as well as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. .

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of overload training on the function of peritoneal macrophages in rats, and to test the hypothesis that glutamine in vivo supplementation would partly reverse the eventual functional alterations induced by overload training in these cells. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (C), overload training group (E1), overload training and restore one week group (E2), glutamine-supplementation group (EG1), and glutamine-supplementation and restore 1-week group (EG2). All rats, except those placed on sedentary control were subjected to 11 weeks of overload training protocol. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone, and corticosterone of rats were measured. Moreover, the functions (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytokines synthesis, reactive oxygen species generation) of peritoneal macrophages were determined. Data showed that blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone, corticosterone and body VigRx Plus weight in the overload training group decreased significantly as compared with the control group. Meanwhile, the chemotaxis capacity (decreased by 31%, p = .003), the phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 27%, p = .005), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (decreased by 35%, p = .003) and the cytokines response capability of macrophages were inhibited by overload training. However, the hindering of phagocytosis and the cytokines response capability of macrophages induced by overload training could be ameliorated and reversed respectively, by dietary glutamine supplementation. These results suggest that overload training impairs the function of peritoneal macrophages, which is essential for the microbicidal actions of macrophages. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunodepression induced by overload training. Nonetheless, dietary glutamine supplementation could partly reverse the impaired macrophage function resulting from overload training. .

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